JAMB 2016 Preparation – Study Area Of Concentration For Biology Students

Jamb Admission and Matriculation Board JAMB
Jamb Admission and Matriculation Board JAMB

The Biology syllabus stand as a study
guild for all
prospective applicants.
The topic listed below should be studied to
ensure success
in the coming examination.
the purpose for this syllabus is to
1. demonstrate sufficient knowledge of the
concepts of the
diversity interdependence and unity of life;
2. account for continuity of life through
reorganization,
inheritance and evolution;
3. apply biological principles and concepts to
everyday life,
especially to matters affecting living things,
individual,
society, the environment, community health
and the
economy.
VARIETY OF ORGANISMS
TOPICS/CONTENTS
1. Living organisms
a. Characteristics
b. Cell structure and functions
of cell Components
c. Level of organization
i. Cell e.g. euglena and
paramecium,
ii. Tissue, e.g. epithelial tissues
and hydra
iii. Organ, e.g. onion bulb
iv. Systems, e.g. reproductive,
digestive and excretory
v. Organisms e.g.
Chlamydomonas
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to br /> i.
differentiate between the
characteristics of living and
non-living things.
ii. identify the structures of
plants and animal cells.
iii. analyse the functions of the
components of plants and
animal cells.
iv. compare and contrast the
structure of plant and animal
cells.
v. trace the levels of
organization among organisms
in their logical sequence in
relation to the five level of
organization of living
organisms.
2 Evolution among the
following
a. Monera (prokaryotes), e.g.
bacteria and
blue green algae.
b. Protista (protozoans and
protophyta),
e.g. Amoeba, Euglena and
Paramecium
c. Fungi, e.g. mushroom and
Rhizopus.
d. Plantae (plants)
i. Thallophyta (e.g. Spirogyra)
ii. Bryophyta (mosses and
liveworts) e.g.
Brachmenium and
Merchantia.
iii. Pteridophyta (ferns) e.g.
Dryopteris.
iv. Spermatophyta
(Gymnospermae and
Angiospermae)
– Gymnosperms e.g. Cycads
and conifers.
– Angiosperms (monocots, e.g.
maize; dicots, e.g. water leaf)
e. Animalia (animals)
i. Invertebrates
– coelenterate (e.g. Hydra)
– Platyhelminthes (flatworms)
e.g. Taenia
– Nematoda (roundworms)
– Annelida (e.g. earthworm)
– Arthropoda e.g. mosquito,
cockroach, housefly, bee,
butterfly
– Mollusca (e.g. snails)
ii. Multicellular animals
(vertebrates)
– pisces (cartilaginous and
bony fish)
– Amphibia (e.g. toads and
frogs)
– Reptilia (e.g. lizards, snakes
and turtles)
– Aves (birds)
– Mammalia (mammals)
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to br /> i.
analyse external features
and characteristics of the
listed organisms br /> ii. apply the
knowledge from
(i) above to demonstrate
increase in structural
complexity .
iii. trace the stages in the life
histories of the listed
organisms.
iv. apply the knowledge of the
life histories to demonstrate
gradual transition from life in
water to life on land.
v. trace the evolution of the
listed plants.
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to br /> i. trace
the advancement of
the invertebrate animals.
ii. determine the economic
importance of the
insects studied.
iii. asses their values to the
environment.
i. trace the advancement of
multi-cellular animals.
ii. determine their economic
importance.
3.a Structural/functional and
behavioural adaptations of
organisms
b. adaptive colouration and its
functions
c. Behavioural adaptations in
social animals
d. Structural adaptations in
organisms. Candidates should be able to
br /> i. describe how the various
structures, functions and
behaviour adapt these
organisms to their
environment, and way of life
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to br /> i.
Categorize countershading in
fish, toads and snakes and
warning colouration in
mushrooms.
Candidates should be able to br />
i. Differentiate various castes
in social insects like termites
and thei functions in their
colony hive.
ii. Account for basking in
lizards, territorial behavour of
other animals under
unfavourable conditions
(hibernation and aestivation).
Candidates should be able to
account for adaptation in
organisms with respect to the
following br /> i. Obtaining food (beaks and
legs of birds, mouthparts of
insects especially mosquito,
butterfly and moth.)
ii. Protection and defence
(stick insects, praying mantis
and toad).
iii. Securing mates (redhead
male and female Agama
lizards, display of fathers by
birds).
iv. Regulating body
temperature (skin, feathers
and hairs)
v. Conserving water (spines in
plants and scales in mammals)
B FORM AND FUNCTIONS
TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES OBJECTIVES
1. Internal structure of a
flowering plant
i. Root
ii. Stem
iii. Leaf
b. Internal structure of a
mammal
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to br /> i.
identify the transverse
sections of these
organs.
a. relate the structure of these
organs to their
functions.
b. Identify supporting tissues
in plants (collenchyma)
sclerenchyma, xylem and
phloem fibres)
c. Describe the distribution of
supporting tissues in roots,
stem and leaf
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to br /> i.
examine the arrangement of
the mammalian internal
organs.
ii. describe the appearance
and position of the digestive,
reproductive and excretory
organs.
2. Nutrition
a. Modes of nutrition
i. Autotrophic
ii. Heterotrophic
b. Types of Nutrition
c. Plant nutrition
i. Photosynthesis
ii. Mineral requirements
(macro and micro-nutrients)
d. Animal nutrition
i. Classes of food substances;
carbohydrates, proteins, fats
and oils, vitamins, mineral
salts and water
ii. Food tests (e.g. starch,
reducing sugar, protein, oil, fat
etc.
iii. The mammalian tooth
(structures, types and
functions
iv. Mammalian alimentary
canal
v. Nutrition process (ingestion,
digestion, absorption,
and assimilation of digested
food.
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to br /> i.
compare the photosynthetic
and chemosynthetic modes of
nutrition;
ii. provide examples from both
flowering and non- flowering
plants
iii. compare autotrophic and
heterotrophic modes of
nutrition.
Candidates should be able to br />
differentiate the following
examples br /> – holozoic (sheep and man)
– Parasitic (roundworm,
tapeworm and Loranthus)
– saprophytic (Rhizopus and
mushroom)
– carnivorous plants (sundew
and bladderwort)
– determine their nutritional
value.
Candidates should be able to br /> i.
Differentiate the light and
dark reactions, and state
conditions necessary for
photosynthesis.
ii. determine the necessity of
light, carbon (IV) oxide and
chlorophyll in photosynthesis.
iii. detect the presence of
starch in a leaf as an evidence
of photosynthesis.
Candidates should be able to br /> i.
identify macro-and micro-
elements required by plants.
ii. recognise the deficiency
symptoms of nitrogen,
phosphorous and potassium.
3. Transport
a. Need for transportation
b. Materials for transportation.
Excretory products, gases,
manufactured food, digested
food, nutrient, water and
hormones)
c. Channels for transportation
i. Mammalian circulatory
system (heart, arteries,
veins, and capillaries)
ii Plant vascular system
(phloem and xylem)
d. Media and processes of
mechanism for transportation.
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to br /> i.
indicate the sources of the
various classes of food;
ii. relate the importance and
deficiency e.g. scurvy, rickets,
kwashiorkor etc. of each class;
iii. determine the importance
of a balanced diet.
Candidates should be able to
detect the presence of the
listed food items from the
result of a given experiment.
Candidates should be able to br /> i.
describe the structure of a
typical mammalian tooth;
ii. differentiate the types of
mammalian tooth and relate
their structures to their
functions.
iii. compare the dental
formulae of man, sheep, and
dog.
Candidates should be able to br /> i. relate
the structure of the
various components of the
alimentary canal and its
accessory organs (liver,
pancreas, and gall bladder) to
their functions.
Candidates should be able to br /> i.
identify the general
characteristics of digestive
enzymes;
ii. associate enzymes with
digestion of carbohydrates,
proteins and fats;
iii. determine the end products
of these classes of food.
Candidates should be able to br /> i.
determine the relationship
between increase in size and
complexity and the need for
the development of a
transport system in plants and
animals.
Candidates should be able to br /> i.
determine the sources of
materials and the forms in
which they are transported.
Candidates should be able to br /> i.
describe the general
circulatory system;
ii. compare specific functions
of the hepatic portal vein, the
pulmonary vein and artery,
aorta, the renal artery and
vein
Candidates should be able to br /> i.
identify the organs of the
plant vascular system.
ii. understand the specific
functions of the phloem and
xylem.
Candidates should be able to br /> i.
identify media of
transportation (e.g. cytoplasm,
cell sap, body fluid, blood and
lymph);
ii. know the composition and
functions of blood and lymph;
iii. describe diffusion, osmosis,
plasmolysis and
turgidity as mechanism of
transportation in organisms.
iv. compare the various
mechanisms of open
circulatory systems, in animal
transpiration pull, root
pressure and active transport
as mechanism of
transportation in plants.
4. Respiration
a. Respiratory organs and
surfaces
b. The mechanism of gaseous
exchange in br /> i. Plants
ii. Mammals
c. Aerobic respiration
d. Anaerobic respiration
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to br /> i.
examine the significance of
respiration;
ii. describe a simplified outline
of the chemical process
involved in glycolysis and
krebs cycle with reference to
the role ATP
iii deduce from an
experimental set up, gaseous
exchange and products,
exchange and production of
heat energy during
respiration.
Candidates should be able to br /> i.
describe the following
respiratory organs and
surfaces with organisms in
which they occur; body
surface, gill, trachea, lungs,
stomata and lenticel.
Candidates should be able to br /> i.
describe the mechanism for
the opening and closing of the
stomata;
ii. determine respiratory
movements in these animals.
Candidates should be able to br /> iii.
examine the role of oxygen
in the liberation of
energy for the activities of the
living organisms;
iv. deduce the effect of
insufficient supply of oxygen
to the muscles.
Candidates should be able to br /> i. use
yeast cells and sugar
solution to demonstrate
the process of fermentation.
ii. know the economic
importance of yeasts.
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2>>5 Excretion
a. Types of excretory
structures
contractile vacuole, flamecell,
nephridium, Malpighian
tubule, kidney,
stoma and lenticel.
b. Excretory mechanisms br /> i. Kidneys
ii. lungs
ii. skin
c. Excretory products of plants
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to br /> i. define
the meaning and state
the significance of excretion;
ii. relate the characteristics of
each structure with functions.
Candidates should be able to br /> i. relate
the structure of the
kidneys to the excretory
and osmo-regulatory
functions.
. identify the functions and
excretory products of the
lungs and the skin.
Candidates should be able to br /> i.
deduce the economic
importance of the excretory
products of plants, e.g carbon
(IV) oxide, oxygen, tannins,
resins, gums, mucilage,
alkaloids etc.
6 Support and movement
a. Tropic, tactic, nastic and
sleep
movements in plants
b. supporting tissues in
animals
c. Types and functions of the
skeleton
i. Exoskeleton
ii. Endoskeleton
iii. Functions of the skeleton in
animals
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to br /> i.
determine the need for
support and movement in
organisms;
ii. identify supporting tissues
in plants (collenchyma,
sclerenchyma, xylem and
phloem fibres)
iii. describe the distribution of
supporting tissues in
roots, stem, and leaf.
Candidates should be able to br /> i. relate
the response of plants
to the stimuli of light,
water, gravity and touch;
ii. identify the regions of
growth in roots and shoots
and the roles of auxins in
tropism.
Candidates should be able to br /> i. relate
the location of chitin,
cartilage and bone to
their supporting function.
ii. relate the structure and the
general layout of the
mammalian skeleton to their
supportive, locomotive and
respiratory function.
iii. differentiate types of joints
using appropriate
examples.
Candidates should be able to br /> i. apply
the protective,
supportive, locomotive and
respiratory functions of the
skeleton to the well being of
the animal.
7 Reproduction
a. A sexual reproduction
i. Fission as in Paramecium
ii. Budding as in yeast
iii. Natural vegetative
propagation
iv. Artificial vegetative
propagation.
b. sexual reproduction in
flowering plants
i. Floral parts and their
functions
ii. Pollination and fertilization
iii. products of sexual
reproduction
c. Reproduction in mammals
i. structures and functions of
the male and female
reproductive organs
ii. Fertilization and
development.
(Fusion of gamates)
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to br /> i.
differentiate between
asexual and sexual
reproduction
ii. apply natural vegetative
propagation in crop
production and multiplication.
iii. apply grafting, budding and
layering in agricultural
practices.
Candidates should be able to br /> i. relate
parts of flower to their
functions and reproductive
process
ii. deduce the advantages of
cross pollination.
iii. deduce the different types
of placentation that develop
into simple, aggregate,
multiple and succulent fruits.
Candidates should be able to br /> i.
differentiate between male
and female reproductive
organs
ii. relate their structure and
function to the production of
offspring.
Candidates should be able to br /> i.
describe the fusion of
gametes as a process of
fertilization.
ii. relate the effects of the
mother’s health, nutrition
and indiscriminate use of
drugs on the developmental
stages of the embryo up to
birth.
iv. Modern methods of
regulating reproductive on e.g.
invitro fertilization and birth
control
8 Growth
a. meaning of growth
b. Germination of seeds and
condition
necessary for germination of
seeds.
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to br /> i. apply
the knowledge of the
conditions necessary for
germination on plants growth.
ii. differentiate between
epigeal and hypogeal
germination.
9 Co-ordination and control
a. Nervous coordination br /> i. the
components, structure
and functions
of the central nervous system;
ii. The components and
functions of the
peripheral nervous systems;
iii. Mechanism of transmission
of impulses;
iv. Reflex action
b. The sense organs
i. skin (tactile)
ii. nose (olfactory)
iii. tongue (taste)
iv. eye (sight)
v. ear (auditory)
c. Hormonal control
i. animal hormonal system
– Pituitary
– thyroid
– parathyroid
– adrenal gland
– pancreas
– gonads
ii. Plant hormones
(phytohormones)
d. Homeostasis
i. Body temperature regulation
ii. Salt and water regulation
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to br /> i. apply
the knowledge of the
structure and function of the
central nervous system in the
coordination of body functions
in organisms.
ii. illustrate reflex actions such
as blinking of the eyes, knee
jerk etc.
iii. differentiate between reflex
and voluntary actions as well
as conditioned reflexes such
as salivation, riding a bicycle
and swimming.
Candidates should be able to br /> i.
associate the listed sense
organs with their functions.
ii. apply the knowledge of the
structure and functions of
these sense organs in
detecting and correcting their
defects.
Candidates should be able to br /> i. locate
the listed endocrine
glands in animals.
ii. relate the hormone
produced by each of these
glands to their functions.
Candidates should be able to br /> i.
examine the effects of
various phytohormones (e.g.
auxins, gibberellin, cytokinin,
and ethylene) on growth,
tropism, flowering, fruit
ripening and leaf abscission.
Candidates should be able to br /> i. relate
the function of
hormones to regulating the
levels of materials inside the
body.
ECOLOGY
TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES OBJECTIVES
1. Factors affecting the
distribution of Organisms
i. Abiotic
ii. Biotic Candidates should be able to br />
i. deduce the effects of
temperature; rainfall, relative
humidity, wind speed and
direction, altitude, salinity,
turbidity, pH and edaphic (soil)
conditions on the distribution
of organisms.
ii. use appropriate equipment
(e.g. secchi disc,
thermometer, rain gauge etc)
to measure abiotic factors.
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to br /> i.
describe how the activities of
plants/animals (particularly
human) affect the distribution
of organisms.
2. Symbiotic interactions of
plants and animals
(a) Energy flow in the
ecosystem: food chains, food
webs and trophic levels
(b) Nutrient cycling in nature
i. carbon cycle
ii. water cycle
iii. Nitrogen cycle
Candidates should be able to br /> i.
determine appropriate
examples of symbiosis,
parasitism, saprophytism,
commensalism, mutualism,
amensalism,
competition, predation and
cooperation among
organisms.
ii. associate the distribution of
organisms with food chains
and food webs in particular
habitats.
Candidates should be able to br /> i. food
chains and webs
Candidates should be able to br /> i.
describe the cycle and its
significance including the
balance of atmospheric
oxygen and carbon (IV) oxide
and global warming.
Candidates should be able to br /> i. assess
the effects of water
cycle on other nutrient cycles.
Candidates should be able to br /> i. relate
the roles of bacteria
and leguminous plants in the
cycling of nitrogen.
3 Natural Habitats
(a) Aquatic (e.g. ponds,
streams, lakes
seashores and mangrove
swamps)
(b) Terrestrial/arboreal (e.g.
tree-tops of oil palm,
abandoned farmland or a dry
grassy (savanna) field, and
burrow or hole.
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to br /> i.
associate plants and animals
with each of these habitats.
Candidates should be able to br /> i. relate
adaptive features to
the habitats in which an
organisms lives.
4 Local (Nigerian Biomes)
a. Tropical rainforest
b. Guinea savanna (southern
and northern)
c. Sudan Savanna
d. Desert
e. Highlands of montane
forests and grasslands of the
Obudu, Jos, Mambilla Plateau.
Candidates should be able to br /> i. locate
biomes in regions
ii. apply the knowledge of the
features of the listed local
biomes in determining the
characteristics of different
regions of Nigeria.
5 The Ecology of Populations
(a) Population density and
overcrowding.
(b) Adaptation for survival
i. Factors that bring about
competition
ii. Intra and inter-specific
competition
iii. Relationship between
competition and succession.
(c) Factors affecting population
sizes br /> i. Biotic (e.g. food, pest,
disease, predation,
competition, reproductive
ability).
ii. Abiotic (e.g. temperature,
space, light, rainfall,
topography, pressure, pH, etc.
(d) Ecological succession
i. primary succession
ii. secondary succession
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to br /> i.
determine the reasons for
rapid changes in human
population and the
consequences of
overcrowding.
ii. compute/calculate density
as the number of organisms
per unit area.
Candidates should be able to br /> i) Relate
increase in
population, diseases, shortage
of food and space with intra-
and inter-specific competition.
Candidates should be able to br /> i)
Determine niche
differentiation as a means of
reducing intra-specific
completion.
Candidates should be able to br /> i) Relate
competition to
succession.
Candidates should be able to br /> i.
deduce the effect of these
factors on the size of
population.
i. determine the interactions
between biotic and abiotic
factors, e.g. drought or scarcity
of water which leads to food
shortage and lack of space
which causes increase in
disease rates.
Candidates should be able to br /> i. trace
the sequence in
succession to the climax stage
of stability in plant population.
6. SOIL
a) (i) characteristics of
different types
of soil (sandy, loamy, clayey)
i. soil structure
ii. porosity, capillarity and
humus
content
iii. Components of the soil
i. inorganic
ii. organic
iii. soil organisms
iv. Soil air
v. Soil water
Soil fertility br /> i. loss of soil fertility
ii. Renewal and maintenance
of soil fertility
Candidates should be able to br /> i.
identify physical properties
of different soil types based on
simple measurement of
particle size, porosity or water
retention ability.
ii. determine the amounts of
air, water, humus and
capillarity in different soil
types experimentally.
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to br /> i. relate
soil characteristics,
types and components to the
healthy growth of plant.
Candidates should be able to br /> i. relate
such factors as loss of
inorganic matter, compaction,
leaching, erosion of the top
soil and repeated cropping
with one variety.
Candidates should be able to br /> i. apply
the knowledge of the
practice of contour ridging,
terracing, mulching, poly-
cropping, strip-cropping, use
of organic and inorganic
fertilizers, crop rotation,
shifting cultivation, etc to
enhance soil conservation.
7. Humans and Environment
(a) Diseases br /> (i) Common and endemic
diseases.
ii. Easily transmissible
diseases and disease
syndrome such as br /> – poliomyelitis
– cholera
– tuberculosis
– sexually transmitted disease/
syndrome (gonorrhea,
syphilis, AIDS, etc.
b Pollution and its control
(i) sources, types, effects and
methods of control.
(ii) Sanitation and sewage
(c) Conservation of Natural
Resources
(d) Game reserves and
National parks
Candidates should be able to br /> i.
identify ecological conditions
that favour the spread of
common endemic and
potentially epidemic disease
e.g. malaria, meningitis,
drancunculiasis,
schistosomiasis,
onchocerciasis, typhoid fever
and cholera etc.
ii. relate the biology of the
vector or agent of each
disease with its spread and
control.
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to br /> i. use
the knowledge of the
causative organisms, mode of
transmission and symptoms of
the listed diseases to their
prevention/treatment/control.
ii. apply the principles of
inoculation and vaccination on
disease prevention.
Candidates should be able to br /> i.
categorize pollution into air,
water and soil pollution.
ii. relate the effects of
common pollutants to human
health and environmental
degradation.
iii. determine the methods by
which each pollutant may be
controlled.
Candidates should be able to br /> i.
examine the importance of
sanitation with emphasis on
solid waste sewage disposal,
community health and
personal hygiene.
ii assess the roles and
functions of international and
national health agencies (e.g.
World Health Organization
(WHO), United Nations
International Children
Emergency Fund (UNICEF),
International Red Cross
Society (IRCS), and the
ministries of health and
environment.
Candidates should be able to br /> (i) apply
the various methods
of conservation of both the
renewable and non-renewable
natural resources for the
protection of our environment
for present and future
generations.
(ii) outline the benefits of
conserving natural resources,
prevention of desertification.
(iii) identify the bodies
responsible for the
conservation of resources at
the national and international
levels (e.g. Nigerian
Conservation Foundation
(NCF), Federal Ministry of
Environment, Nigeria National
Parks, World Wildlife
Foundation (WWF),
International Union for
Conservation of Nature (IUCN),
United Nations Environmental
Programme (UNEP) and their
activities.
(iv) asses their activities.
Candidates should be able to br /> i. Know
the location and
importance of game reserves
and National parks in Nigeria
D HEREDITY AND VARIATIONS
TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES OBJECTIVES
(I) Variation In Population
a. Morphological variations in
the physical appearance of
individuals.
(i) size (height, weight)
(ii) Colour (skin, eye, hair, coat
of animals, scales and
feathers.
(iii) Fingerprints
b. Physiological variation
(i) Ability to roll tongue
(ii) Ability to taste
phenylthiocarbamide (PTC)
(iii) Blood groups
c. Application of discontinuous
variation in crime detection,
blood transfusion and
determination of paternity.
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to br /> i.
differentiate between
continuous and discontinuous
variations with examples.
ii. relate the role of
environmental conditions,
habitat and the genetic
constitution to variation.
Candidates should be able to br /> i)
measure heights and weight
of pupils of the same age
group;
ii) plot graphs of frequency
distribution of the heights and
weights.
Candidates should be able to br /> i)
observe and record various
colour patterns in some plants
and mammals.
Candidates should be able to br /> i) apply
classification of
fingerprints in identity
detection.
Candidates should be able to br /> i)
identify some specific
examples of
physiological variation among
human population.
ii) categorize people according
to their physiological variation.
Candidates should be able to br /> i) apply
the knowledge of
blood groups in
blood transfusion and
determination of paternity.
ii) use discontinuous variation
in crime detection.
2. Heredity
a) Inheritance of characters in
organisms;
i) Heritable and non-heritable
characters.
b) Chromosomes – the basis of
heredity;
(i) Structure
(ii) Process of transmission of
hereditary characters from
parents to offspring.
c) Probability in genetics and
sex determination.
a) Application of the principles
of heredity in br /> i) Agriculture
(ii) Medicine
b. Sex – linked characters e.g.
baldness, haemophilia, colour
blindness, etc.
Candidates should be able to br /> i.
determine heritable and
non-heritable characters with
examples.
Candidates should be able to br /> i.
illustrate simple structure of
DNA
Candidates should be able to br /> i.
illustrate segregation of
genes at meiosis and
recombination
of genes at fertilization to
account for the process of
transmission of characters
from parents to offsprings.
Candidates should be able to br /> i)
deduce that segregation of
genes occurs during gamete
formation and that
recombination of genes at
fertilization is
random in nature.
Candidates should be able to br /> i.
analyze data on cross-
breeding experiments.
ii. apply the principles of
heredity in the production of
new varieties of crops and
livestock through cross-
breeding.
iii. deduce advantages and
disadvantages
of out-breeding and in-
breeding.
iv. analyze elementarily the
contentious issues of
genetically modified
organisms (GMO) and gene
therapy and biosafety.
Candidates should be able to br /> i) apply
the knowledge of
heredity in marriage
counselling with particular
reference to blood grouping,
sickle-cell
anaemia and the Rhesus
factors.
ii) examine the significance of
using recombinant DNA
materials in the production of
important medical products
such as insulin, interferon and
enzymes.
Candidates should be able to br /> i)
identify characters that are
sex linked.
E EVOLUTION
TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES OBJECTIVES
1. Theories of evolution
a) Lamarck’s theory
b) Darwin’s theory
c) organic theory
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to br /> i.) relate
organic evolution as
the sum total of all adaptive
changes that have taken place
over a long period of time
resulting in the diversity of
forms, structure and functions
among organisms.
ii.) examine the contributions
of Lamarck and Darwin to the
theory of evolution.
iii.) know evidences in support
of organic evolution
2. Evidence of evolution Candidates should
be able to br /> i.) provide evidences for
evolution such as fossil
records, comparative
anatomy, physiology and
embryology.
ii.) trace evolutionary trends in
plants and animals.
iii.) provide evidence for
modern evolutionary theories
such as genetic studies and the
role of mutation.
RECOMMENDED TEXTS
Ndu, F.O. C. Ndu, Abun A. and Aina J.O.
(2001) Senior
Secondary School Biology
Books 1 -3, Lagos: Longman
Odunfa, S.A. (2001) Essential of Biology,
Ibadan Heinemann
Ogunniyi M.B. Adebisi A.A. and Okojie J.A.
(2000) Biology for
Senior Secondary Schools: Books 1 – 3,
Macmillan
Ramalingam, S.T. (2005) Modern Biology, SS
Science Series.
New Edition, AFP
Stan. (2004) Biology for Senior Secondary
Schools. Revised
Edition, Ibadan Heinemann
Stone R.H. and Cozens, A.B.C. (1982)
Biology for West African
Schools. Longman
Usua, E.J. (1997) Handbook of practical
Biology 2nd Edition,
University Press, Limited

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